sciencesoup:

The Remarkable Freezing Salamander

Found mainly in the Arctic Circle, Russia and Northeast Asia, the Siberian Salamander (Salamandrella keyserlingii) is a unique creature that can survive long periods of time frozen. The adult salamander is able to adapt to temperatures as low as –45 degrees Celsius by replacing the water in its blood and cells with ‘antifreeze’ chemicals, thereby protecting its tissues from damage. Other animals are known to use glucose or glycerol for protection in a similar fashion, but the exact mechanism the Siberian salamandar uses to produce its chemicals is so far unknown—but it’s highly effective. They can survive frozen for years, metres under the permafrost, and then they just casually thaw out and walk off again. Local legends claim that salamanders have revived after being frozen alongside mammoths of the Pleistocene age, but although they’ve been found 4–14 m deep in ice, it’s more likely that they just fell down cracks in more recent years. If we could discover how these creatures manage to produce antifreeze chemicals, the process could have useful applications in food storage, medical supplies, and protection of people who live or explore in the snow.

(Image Credit: 1, 2)

Crocodile Fish Eye
The crypic patterning of the crocodile fish extends to its eyes. They have frilly iris lappets, which help break up the black pupil of the fish, thus improving its camouflage.
Philippe Guillaume on Flickr

Crocodile Fish Eye

The crypic patterning of the crocodile fish extends to its eyes. They have frilly iris lappets, which help break up the black pupil of the fish, thus improving its camouflage.

Philippe Guillaume on Flickr

Crescent-tail Bigeye (Priacanthus hamrur)
The Crescent-tail Bigeye is aptly named for its big eyes, which have a reflective layer of pigment cells behind the retina. This reflects light back through the eye to the photo receptors enabling the fish to see better at night.
InfoRichard Ling, Flickr

Crescent-tail Bigeye (Priacanthus hamrur)

The Crescent-tail Bigeye is aptly named for its big eyes, which have a reflective layer of pigment cells behind the retina. This reflects light back through the eye to the photo receptors enabling the fish to see better at night.

Info
Richard Ling, Flickr

Hairy Frogfish (Antennarius striatus)
The “hairy” filaments all over its body attracts unsuspecting prey towards the waiting frogfish. Frogfish rely heavily on camouflage and deception as they are too sluggish to pursue prey.
Steve Childs, Flickr

Hairy Frogfish (Antennarius striatus)

The “hairy” filaments all over its body attracts unsuspecting prey towards the waiting frogfish. Frogfish rely heavily on camouflage and deception as they are too sluggish to pursue prey.

Steve Childs, Flickr

Whiteblotched Sole (Soleichthys maculosus) and Flatworm 

Juvenile sole are known to mimic ill tasting flatworms as a method of protection. The sole’s flattened shape and its habit of swimming on the seafloor complete the illusion. This is a form of batesian mimicry by which a harmful species is mimicked by a harmless species.

© Australian Museum

Pygmy Seahorse (Hippocampus bargibanti)

Several colour morphs of this tiny seahorse exist, possibly as a result of the varying colouration amongst the corals in which they inhabit.

Steve Childs, Flickr

Pygmy Seahorse (Hippocampus bargibanti)
This 2cm seahorse has evolved to perfectly camouflage against the gorgonian corals which they live on. Its bumps and colouration are so effective that the species was not actually discovered until its host coral was being examined in a laboratory.
Klaus Stiefel

Pygmy Seahorse (Hippocampus bargibanti)

This 2cm seahorse has evolved to perfectly camouflage against the gorgonian corals which they live on. Its bumps and colouration are so effective that the species was not actually discovered until its host coral was being examined in a laboratory.

Klaus Stiefel