Manta Rays at Cleaning Station
Due to their large size, manta rays are easy hosts for parasites. The rays have been observed to visit cleaning stations in coral reefs. These open areas are inhabited by a number of smaller fish species which pick parasites off of the ray’s body and gill slits. This relationship is an example of mutualistic symbiosis as the cleaners get an easy meal while the mantas get their parasites removed.
Boris Bialek on Flickr

Manta Rays at Cleaning Station

Due to their large size, manta rays are easy hosts for parasites. The rays have been observed to visit cleaning stations in coral reefs. These open areas are inhabited by a number of smaller fish species which pick parasites off of the ray’s body and gill slits. This relationship is an example of mutualistic symbiosis as the cleaners get an easy meal while the mantas get their parasites removed.

Boris Bialek on Flickr

Yawning Frogfish
Frogfish are poor swimmers and rely on camouflage to get close to their prey. Once within striking distance, the fish expands its oral cavity by up to 12 times in volume, creating a negative pressure that sucks prey into its mouth. This can take place in as little as 6 thousandths of a second. The fish must be able to swallow its prey whole as it does not have teeth.
Nazir Amin on Flickr

Yawning Frogfish

Frogfish are poor swimmers and rely on camouflage to get close to their prey. Once within striking distance, the fish expands its oral cavity by up to 12 times in volume, creating a negative pressure that sucks prey into its mouth. This can take place in as little as 6 thousandths of a second. The fish must be able to swallow its prey whole as it does not have teeth.

Nazir Amin on Flickr

Yellow Boxfish (Ostracion cubicus)
As its name suggests, the yellow boxfish is roughly shaped like a box. It’s juvenile colouration of bright yellow and black dots serves as a warning for it’s toxicity. If stressed, the boxfish can secrete poisons from its skin which can kill other fish in surrounding waters.
Klaus Stiefel via Flickr

Yellow Boxfish (Ostracion cubicus)

As its name suggests, the yellow boxfish is roughly shaped like a box. It’s juvenile colouration of bright yellow and black dots serves as a warning for it’s toxicity. If stressed, the boxfish can secrete poisons from its skin which can kill other fish in surrounding waters.

Klaus Stiefel via Flickr

Mud-Puddling Butterflies

To supplements salts and amino acids, many species of butterfly drink water from mud or rotting matter. This is because nectar lacks many of the minerals and nutrients needed for proper physiological functioning. Some species even supplement their nutrients with dung or carrion.

Geoff Gallice, chinmayisk on Flickr

Yellow Tang (Zebrasoma flavescens)
In the wild, yellow tangs provide cleaning services for sea turtles. The fish gather in groups and pick off algae from the turtle’s shells. This is mutually beneficial as the turtles get their shells cleaned while the fish get a meal.
Peter Liu via Flickr

Yellow Tang (Zebrasoma flavescens)

In the wild, yellow tangs provide cleaning services for sea turtles. The fish gather in groups and pick off algae from the turtle’s shells. This is mutually beneficial as the turtles get their shells cleaned while the fish get a meal.

Peter Liu via Flickr

Sundew and Fly

Sundews are a genus of carnivorous plants that ensnare their prey with sticky drops of mucilage. Once stuck, the insect will either die of exhaustion or asphyxiation as the glue like substance blocks their breathing holes. The plant is able to release enzymes that dissolve the insect, freeing nutrients which are absorbed and used for growth.

© via Flickr

Pom-Pom Crab (Lybia tessellata)
The pom-pom crab is known for forming a symbiotic relationship with small anemones, which it carries around in its claws. If threatened, the crab will use the stinging tentacles of the anemone as a weapon and wave them to deter the attacker. They can also be used to catch and immobolise prey.
Eliot Ferguson via Flickr

Pom-Pom Crab (Lybia tessellata)

The pom-pom crab is known for forming a symbiotic relationship with small anemones, which it carries around in its claws. If threatened, the crab will use the stinging tentacles of the anemone as a weapon and wave them to deter the attacker. They can also be used to catch and immobolise prey.

Eliot Ferguson via Flickr